Tips & Info

If you are baking using recipes from other countries you will soon find that some ingredients and instructions don’t match with your kitchen set up at home. Here are some references and conversions that I am using for my baking of staple breads.

For all kinds of conversions between metric and US and cups and grams for common baking ingredients, this website has a handy converter that I often use.

Flour Types

Wheat Flour

This is not an exhaustive list of all the flour types and the conversions but these are the flours I am using. I am currently buying flour in Europe but I am already using recipes from Europe, USA, UK and Australia so I have to convert the flour names to what I can buy here. I am mostly baking with all-purpose flour, and sometimes pastry flour for the lighter breads, as well as wholemeal/wholewheat flour.

You may find this table below useful.

Ash Protein Wheat flour type
US UK German
French Italian
~0.4% ~9% pastry /cake flour soft flour 405 40 00
~0.55% ~11% all-purpose flour plain flour 550 55 0
~0.8% ~14% high gluten flour / bread strong or hard 812 80 1
~1% ~15% first clear flour very strong or hard 1050 110 2
>1.5% ~13% white whole wheat wholemeal 1600 150 Farina integrale di grano tenero

Other Flours

I am also baking some recipes that use:

  • Corn flour (cornmeal, not cornstarch)
  • Rye flour (wholegrain 1800 – German numbering)
  • Barley flour


Yeast Types

I am mostly cooking with instant yeast, though for one recipe I did use fresh yeast. When I went to the fridge to take it out to use it again, it had already started to go off, so I went back to the pantry yeast. Mostly I am using this or a similar type from another brand. The packets come in 7g sizes which seems to be standard. Some more information on yeast for those for are interested is on wikipedia.

Useful approximate yeast conversions

Fresh Yeast Active Dry Yeast Instant Yeast
21g 9.45g (3 1/3 tsp) 7g (2 1/4 tsp)

Measuring conversions

The recipes I am using are sourced from many countries. My cups and tablespoons are Australian standard measurements so these don’t always match up. Where I can, I measure weights (in grams) or volume but I often resort to cups and tablespoons and teaspoons and follow a “close enough” approach, i.e. I don’t fully fill my Australian cups, tablespoons and teaspoons when cooking from a US/UK/European recipe – which is most of the time.

  • Tablespoons there is a tablespoon measurement difference (14/15ml vs. Australian 20ml).
  • Teaspoons are much closer, 5ml is the standard culinary metric measurement.
  • Cups are close (US ~240ml vs. Australia/metric 250ml)

Oven conversions

Fahrenheit Celsius Description
225 110 Very cool/very slow
250 130
275 140 cool
300 150
325 170 very moderate
350 180 moderate
375 190
400 200 moderately hot
425 220 hot
450 230
475 240 very hot